Science

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Board of Trustees records, 1925-1990 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) is a natural history museum which was founded in 1812, “for the encouragement and cultivation of the sciences, and the advancement of useful learning.” The ANSP Board of Trustees, was established in 1925, as one of the institution’s primary administrative bodies. The Board of Trustees was charged with establishing financial policies, selecting the Academy President, assisting with fund raising and community relations, and serving as a board of review. This collection of Trustees records dating from 1925 to 1990 contains minutes and correspondence of various Board committees, policies and procedures, departmental activity reports, annual meetings and files from the President’s office related to board matters.
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Chemical Analysis Worksheet

Chemical Analysis Worksheet

Academy of Natural Sciences Division of Environmental Research records, 1952-1995 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  The Division Of Environmental Research was established as a department of the Academy of Natural Sciences in 1947 by botanist and limnologist, Dr. Ruth Patrick. Originally called the Department of Limnology, Patrick envisioned a multidisciplinary team of scientists to help protect the quality of the environment. Not only was environmental research a novel idea for the time, but the multidisciplinary nature of the research was also innovative. The goals of the Division are to, “understand aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, including the effects of natural processes and human activities; apply this knowledge to assess ecosystems health and developing watershed-level strategies for enhancing environmental quality; and work with diverse stakeholders, including government, community groups, industry and environmental organizations to improve environmental stewardship” (ansp.org). This collection provides evidence of the activities of the Division of Environmental Research (DER) between the years 1952 and 1995. The bulk of the collection consists of raw data collected at various locations for research projects sponsored by private corporations. The majority of the remaining portion of the collection consists of the papers of DER Director and Vice President Louis E. Sage. This collection also includes a small body of Dr. Ruth Patrick’s working files, as well as publications related to environmental research. This collection is twenty linear feet, and is divided into five series. The original order of the collection material has been preserved.
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Partridge Berries found in Sheep Country

Partridge Berries found in Sheep Country

Academy of Natural Sciences Exhibits Department records, 1852-2001 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  Prior to the 1930s, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia had neither an education department nor an exhibits department. However, the museum clearly stated that  “to see that our scientific work is shared with the public in ways that instruct and entertain is one of our direct responsibilities, for knowledge of Nature not only widens the mental horizon, but helps to ease the common burdens of life.”  In 1920, Harold T. Green came to work at the Academy. At first, he was in charge of arranging the public lectures funded by the Ludwick Institute. However, within a year he was also “superintending” exhibits. His skills as a taxidermist and artist soon overtook his role as a program coordinator and, in 1930 his title was officially changed to “Curator of Museum Exhibits.”  In 1929, Green created his first habitat group, or “diorama” which depicted a group of rocky mountain goats.  Over the years, the priorities and goals of the Exhibits Department shifted and expanded based upon new ideas in museum education, public perception, and financial challenges.  In the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Exhibits Department records, researchers will find a range of materials that span the better part of the 20th century. Of special interest are the Harold T. Green papers, for these include paintings, specimens, color swatches, sketches, photographs, and illustrations of all sorts taken in situ on expeditions to Africa in the 1930s. Later series reflect the operating methods of the Exhibit Department’s project managers into the 1990s.
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Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia papers on expeditions, 1819-1969 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): The oldest natural sciences institution in the Western Hemisphere, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, was founded when the United States hugged the Atlantic coastline, and Philadelphia was the cultural, commercial, and scientific center of the new nation. Classic expeditions to explore the western wilderness were organized at the Academy. These explorers brought back new species of plants and animals, which were studied and catalogued; and which formed the foundation of the Academy’s scientific collections, now consisting of more than 17,000,000 specimens. This collection documents the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia’s expeditions across the globe from 1891 to 1977. The collection is rich in material, particularly regarding the Academy’s expedition to the Great Barrier Reef in Australia in 1969. There is some general information regarding expeditions, especially in regard to the Committee on Names, which is responsible for selecting offical names for special exhibitions. Also included is information regarding other expeditions in which Academy representatives participated during the late 19th and 20th centuries.
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Long range planning for the Academy of Natural Sciences

Long range planning for the Academy of Natural Sciences

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia President’s Office records, 1874-2003 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  The oldest natural science research institution and museum in the Americas, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was founded in 1812 “for the encouragement and cultivation of the sciences, and the advancement of useful learning.” Since the founding of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, there have been twenty-eight presidents and five acting presidents. From 1937 to 1995, there were four presidents and one acting president who left their administrations well documented: Charles M.B. Cadwalader (1937-1951), William M. Marvel (1971-1974), Milton H. Wahl (1974-1976), Thomas Peter Bennett (1976-1985) and Keith Stewart Thomson (1986-1995). In addition, several key staff members who worked closely with these presidents left a record of their influence and contributions. This collection contains papers kept by the Office of the President as well as some of the various divisions of the Academy overseen by the President from 1874 to 2003. The bulk of the collection is comprised of alphabetically arranged subject files created and/or maintained by the Academy’s President’s Office from 1939 to 1993. The files relate to nearly all activities of the institution including but not limited to institutional finances, research and exhibits. The depth to which topics are covered varies significantly. There are smaller groups of records that document more specifically the activities of the various divisions (or departments) of the Academy, which were administered by the President’s Office, especially the Development Office, the Office of the Comptroller, the Public Museum Division, and the Division of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology.
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Albert Schatz, Ph.D. papers, 1930-2007 (Temple University Libraries Special Collections Research Center): Dr. Albert Schatz joined the staff of the Science Education Department at Temple University’s College of Education in 1969. Dr. Schatz was internationally known for his scientific research. His most important work, and the major subject of this collection, concerns the discovery of the first effective drug against tuberculosis – the drug streptomycin – during the years 1943 and 1944. His other research, which is also represented in this collection, explored a proteolysis-chelation theory of tooth decay and the potential dangers of water fluoridation.
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Annual Announcement of the Wagner Free Institute of Science, 1855-1927 (Wagner Free Institute of Science): Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. The Annual Announcement was published every August from 1855 to 1927 and then from 1959 until the present. It is still being published and has been little changed over the years. The Annual Announcement generally includes a list of the trustees and faculty and their research, the history of the Wagner Free Institute of Science, and a description of the types of instruction including specific lectures that were offered. The Annual Announcement of the Wagner Free Institute of Science collection contains copies of this publication from 1855 to 1927. The collection is arranged chronologically.
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Benjamin Sharp papers and glass lantern slides, 1844-1893 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Benjamin Sharp (1858-1915), a zoologist who was primarily affiliated with the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, attended Swarthmore College (1876) and earned a M.D. and Ph.D.from the University of Pennsylvania. He worked in the Caribbean, the Hawaiian Islands and in the Arctic, where he was in charge of zoology for Peary’s first Arctic Expedition in 1891.
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Bulletin of the Wagner Free Institute of Science, 1926-1958 (Wagner Free Institute of Science): Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. The Bulletin was published from 1926 until 1958, and announced the results of scientific investigations under the auspices of the Wagner Free Institute of Science as well as reports of educational work.
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Constantine Samuel Rafinesque papers, 1818-1977 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840) was a naturalist who is best known for his contributions to scientific classification and nomenclature and giving Latin names to approximately 6,700 plants. While in the United States, he toured west of the Alleghenies and made important botanical discoveries in Kentucky and Illinois. This collection dates from 1818 to 1977 and consists of copies of Rafinesque’s professional letters, family material, and research by F. W. Pennell regarding Rafinesque. The majority of the collection is composed of biographical letters and rough drafts made by Pennell.
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Hummingbirds

Hummingbirds

Crawford H. Greenewalt papers, 1942-1992 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  Crawford Hallock Greenewalt (1902-1993) was a chemical engineer and the President of the DuPont Company from 1948 to 1962. He had a passion for the natural sciences, and combined his love of ornithology with photography. He was especially known for his high speed photographs of hummingbirds. His ornithological interests included bird songs, the radiance of hummingbird feathers and the evolution of shapes and sizes of birds in relation to their flight abilities. The Crawford H. Greenewalt papers documents Greenewalt’s personal study in ornithology, primarily his work on hummingbirds. The collection dates from 1951 to 1993 and consists primarily of photographs taken by Greenewalt, and technical data collected by Greenewalt. The images photographed by Greenewalt exist in many different formats throughout the collection, including prints, negatives, and slides. The technical data in this collection represents Greenewalt’s research into the physiology of hummingbirds, and the development of his high-speed photographic technique. In addition to Greenewalt’s research material, this collection houses drafts and edits of some of Greenewalt’s original publications. The collection also includes awards, certificates, honorary degrees and some camera equipment.
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Edward Drinker Cope papers, 1859-1907 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897) was one of the most distinguished American scientists of the 19th century. The bulk of his work was in the fields of paleontology, zoology, geology and anatomy. During his lifetime, he discovered and described over 600 new species and contributed over 1300 papers to scientific literature. The collection contains certificates and honors, medals, manuscripts of scientific papers, drawings, scientific photographs, biographical material, news clippings, account books, and miscellaneous notes.
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Edward James Nolan documents and correspondence on the History of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1846-1915 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Edward James Nolan (1846-1921) served as the librarian at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia from 1869 until his death. During his tenure as librarian, he performed research on and wrote the history of the Academy which was completed in 1909. This collection contains material collected by Nolan for his history, including transcriptions of early minutes, deeds, biographies, news clipppings, letters and reminiscences of colleagues.
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Life Under Water

Life Under Water

E. R. Fenimore Johnson photographs, 1929-1975 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  Eldridge Reeves Fenimore Johnson (1899-1986) was a pioneer in the development of underwater photography and was also an explorer, yachtsman and researcher. His interests in underwater photography developed during World War II when he enlisted in Naval Research and worked with underwater demolition and photography. He created his own company, Fenjohn Underwater Equipment Company and patented equipment inventions. The E.R. Fenimore Johnson photographs, 1929-1970, is a rich collection of images ranging from underwater photography, equipment and tests; natural history; yachting; and exploration. This collection consists of subject files, test photographs, motion picture films, index card guides to the motion pictures, index card guides to the use of the images, photograph albums of an expedition to Matto Grosso in Brazil, lantern slides, and negatives. Researchers interested in E.R. Fenimore Johnson, the development of underwater photography, marine life, expeditions, the Matto Grosso in Brazil, and Andros Island will find this collection to be a rich visual resource.
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Francis Whittier Pennell biographies of botanists, circa 1924-1952 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Francis Whittier Pennell (1886-1952) was an American botanist and a world authority on the Scrophulariaceae. He served as associate curator of the New York Botanical Garden from 1914 to 1921 and as curator of plants at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia from 1921 until his death. He had an intense interest in the history of botany and collected biographical material on many early botanists. This collection includes Pennell’s research notes as well as some finished biographies.
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Working with Radium

Working with Radium

Frank Hartman papers, 1904-1977 (College of Physicians):  Frank Janczak Hartman (1893-1986) was a radium specialist and consultant who worked as a “radium hound,” searching for pieces lost by area hospitals and industry until his retirement in 1956. The Frank J. Hartman papers provide an insightful view into the changes atomic energy brought to society. Hartman, who owned two companies dealing with radium, clearly saw the product’s value, but he also recognized the potential dangers and the damage that could result from the improper usage, storage and disposal of these materials. This collection will be extremely valuable to a researcher interested in Frank J. Hartman; the radium industry, sales and recovery; atomic energy in Canada; the history of the discovery of radium and the Curie family; and how atomic energy affected the United States.
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Working files

Working files

H. A. Pilsbry papers, 1890-1970, bulk 1900-1957 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  Henry Augustus Pilsbry, Dean of American Malacologists, was the conservator, curator and head of the Department of Shells at the Academy of Natural Sciences for 70 years. He was also the internationally recognized authority in the field of land mollusks. He wrote and edited many volumes of the Manual of Conchology and from 1889 until his death was an editor of the journal Nautilus, which he founded. A member of many scientific expeditions, he travelled all over the United States, to the Caribbean, South America, Mexico, Hawaii and other Pacific Islands, and to Australia. This collection contains the professional papers of Henry A. Pilsbry between the years 1885 and 1957. The bulk of this collection consists of Pilsbry’s working files and drafts of published material that came from those files, including a draft of the second volume of “Land Mollusks of North America.” Pilsbry’s correspondence is by far the most valuable part of this collection. It reflects an extensive international network of scientific investigation of which Pilsbry was at the center. The correspondence is largely related the identification, exchange and taxonomy of specimens from around the world. The materials in this collection would be of interest to anyone researching the professional life of Henry Pilsbry, the history of the Academy of Natural Sciences, or especially the history of malacology.
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Photos from Richards' papers

Photos from Richards' papers

Horace G. Richards papers, 1928-1978 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  Horace G. Richards (1906-1984) was a geologist at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and an authority on the geologic formations of the Atlantic coastal plain. His research specialty focused on geology and paleontology of the Quaternary Period (approximately the past 1.8 million years), but his research interests also included Cenozoic mollusca, and marine Pleistocene geology and paleontology of the Atlantic coastal plain. Additionally, he studied climate change and coastal shorelines, which required extensive fieldwork, taking him all over the world. Richards was also an adjunct professor at two universities and frequently guest lectured at various institutions. The Horace G. Richards papers document various aspects of his professional career, from his graduate education at the University of Pennsylvania to his retirement from the multiple positions he held. Materials in this collection include: general business correspondence; photographs and slides from his field work and expeditions; photographic catalog notebooks; scrapbooks of newspaper clippings and announcements; travel expenses and reports; and the records of the Atlantic Coastal Plains Project, the International Union of Quaternary Research, the Annotated Bibliography of Quaternary Shorelines and various professional societies. Also in the collection are certificates, academic materials, student papers, radio scripts, audio reels, and manuscripts of Richards’ writings and presentations. The majority of the collection is made up of Richards’ correspondence and extensive slides from his travels all over the world. This collection is of special interest for those interested in the history of science, especially the Quaternary Period, geology, paleontology, mollusca, invertebrate fossils, climate change and changing shore lines.
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Annelids

Annelids

J. Percy Moore papers, 1847-1963 (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia):  John Percy Moore (1869-1965) was a Professor of Zoology at the University of Pennsylvania from 1912 to 1939, Assistant Curator at the Academy of Natural Sciences from 1902 to 1938, and and held several positions between 1920 and 1956 at the Ludwick Institute, which offered courses in the natural sciences and free lectures. He was also a world recognized authority on leeches. During his career, Moore named six genera, 229 species, five subspecies and four varieties of polychaetous annelids, or segmented worms (Loi 1980). The J. Percy Moore papers document Moore’s professional career as a zoologist, primarily his study of leeches and other annelids; educator and biographer. The collection dates from 1847 to 1963 and consists of his specimen notes, sketches, photographs, 16 mm film, travel logs and field notes, related to his study of leeches and other annelids. The collection also contains materials related to his involvement with The Academy of Natural Sciences (ANSP) Board of Trustees, ANSP Library Committee, Ludwick Institute, Philadelphia Metropolitan Library Committee, American Philosophical Society Library Committee and his report on mosquito control which he completed for the Bureau of Fisheries. In addition are Moore’s lecture notes on various topics, most notably evolution and heredity; Moore’s course notes; manuscripts and drafts of articles Moore wrote; professional correspondence with students and colleagues; correspondence on the progress of Joseph Leidy’s biography; correspondence and research materials for Samuel George Morton and William Maclure biographies; lantern slides, photographs and correspondence related to Moore’s expedition in India in 1931 and 1932.
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Jacob Cist correspondence and documents, 1794-1829 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Jacob Cist (1782-1825) was an American naturalist, artist, inventor, businessman, author, treasurer and United States Postmaster. He was also one of the most important pioneers in the marketing of anthracite coal and a leading authority on its economic potential. This collection includes personal and business letters, documents, agreements, memorabilia, clippings and records of Cist’s service as United States Postmaster of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. His accounts as treasurer of the Wilkes-Barre Bridge Co. are included, as are records of his activities as a co-founder and officer of the Luzerne County Agricultural Society and his service as a Commissioner from his county to the Pennsylvania Commission for Internal Improvement. His tax accounts as County Treasurer, with supplementary letters give details of the procedures in vogue during that era. The collection also includes some typescript and some facsimile copies.
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Karl W. Boer papers (University of Delaware): Karl Wolfgang Böer was the Distinguished Professor of Physics and Solar Energy at the University of Delaware. A pioneer in the fields of solar cells, solar energy systems and solid state physics, Böer left his native Germany for the University of Delaware in 1962. In 1971, he established the University’s Institute of Energy Conversion, which was recently designated as a National Center of Excellence for Photovoltaic Research and Education by the U.S. Department of Energy. Böer also created SES Inc., a subsidiary of Shell Oil, and was its chairman and CEO until 1976 and its chief scientist until 1981. This collection is a supplement to the Karl Wolfgang Böer papers. The materials in this collection include a significant number of Böer’s published papers and his corresponding notes, research, and scientific calculations. Other materials include: progress reports on the “Solar One” project; International Solar Energy Society materials, including articles of incorporation, by-laws, budgets and memoranda for the American section of the society; Institute for Energy Conversion research proposals; awards bestowed in Böer’s name; correspondence and teaching material from Böer’s professorship at the University of Delaware. The collection also includes presentation slide sets on solar energy issues, and educational film reels. Personal material in the collection includes Böer’s autobiographical work on his experience in Germany from 1945 to 1950, as well as a biography compiled from Böer’s remembrances. Some items in the collection, particularly the material that pre-dates Böer’s move to the United States, is written in German.
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Bond, as a Child, with Birds

Bond, as a Child, with Birds

Mary Wickham Bonds papers on the “real” James Bond, 1907-1997 (Free Library of Philadelphia):  The lives of James and Mary Bond, a Philadelphia ornithologist and author, respectively, were altered the day that author Ian Fleming, a bird lover who was familiar with Bond’s book, The Birds of the West Indies, appropriated James Bond’s name for his fictional spy character. The resulting confusion prompted Mary Wickham Bond to write How 007 Got His Name, in 1966, in which she tells the story of the real James Bond. This collection consists of Mary Wickham Bond’s collection of information regarding her husband, her own works on the writing, publishing and promoting of her books about her husband, and David Contosta’s writings about her husband.
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Creatures of the Sea

Creatures of the Sea

Pierre Eugene du Simitière collection, 1492-1783 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  Pierre Eugène Du Simitière (1737-1784) was a collector, artist, and historian, who opened the first public museum, the American Museum, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At the American Museum, Du Simitière presented his many materials collected during his travels and from his collections. The Library Company of Philadelphia purchased many of the manuscript materials at an auction in 1785 following Du Simitière’s death and the closing of the American Museum. The collection is Du Simitière’s manuscript collection purchased at this auction. The collection reflects his interests and his lifestyle and includes poetry, sketches, watercolors, newspaper excerpts and clippings, treatise, correspondence, lists of nature, historical chronologies, bibliographies, and copies and originals of historical documents. The collection includes compiled information on places such as the West Indies, Pennsylvania, New England, New York, and the Carolinas in the form of historical chronologies, documents, bibliographies, sketches, and narratives. It includes information, documents, and research on many Native American groups and Creoles. The collection also contains information, documents, and research on historical events in the United States such as the Jacob Leisler case, politics in New York, the American Revolution, the colonization of America, and the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny. With the exception of a few miscellaneous items, the collection’s focus is on the years 1720 to 1780.
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Robert Chambers collection on William Wagner and Wagner Free Institute of Science, 1798-1980, bulk 1820-1910 (Wagner Free Institute of Science):  Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. The Robert Chambers collection on William Wagner and the history of the Wagner Free Institute of Science includes material collected by Chambers and contains correspondence; genealogical and family information; documents on William Wagner’s early business career with Stephen Girard, the Lennoxville Steam Saw Mill and Snowden and Wagner; Wagner Free Instute of Science financial and operational material; and personal material from Sydney T. Skidmore, a member of the Board. This collection will almost certainly not provide a researcher with all the information needed—instead, this is an excellent starting point. Because these materials were, according to institutional memory, removed from other collections by Robert Chambers and kept close at hand due to their importance, these records will not tell the entire story. However, Chambers apparently thought them to be of particular interest and value and therefore, researchers will benefit greatly from consulting this finding aid. Researchers interested in the life of William Wagner, his early business efforts, Stephen Girard, Joseph Leidy, and the operation of the Wagner Free Institute of Science will find this collection to be of great interest.
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Skull

Skull

Samuel George Morton papers, 1832-1862 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) of Philadelphia was a physician and natural scientist whose work focused on the craniometric studies of humans with conclusions regarding the relative intellectual capacities of the “five races.” His work had a profound influence on the development of physical anthropology in antebellum America. He also made contributions in the fields of geology, mineralogy, paleontology and natural history. This collection contains mainly the papers of Samuel George Morton. The papers date from 1832 to 1851, when Morton devoted his research efforts almost exclusively to ethnology and to the collecting of human skulls for comparative studies. The bulk of the papers consist of incoming correspondence, from 1832 to 1851, relating to ethnology and other related interests such as anthropology, craniology, paleontology and Egyptology.
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Society for Social Responsibility in Science records, 1948-1976 (Haverford College): The Society for Social Responsibility in Science was founded in 1949, the convening meeting and Constituting Assembly both held at Haverford College. It was conceived as an organization of workers in the natural sciences to maintain free inquiry concerning the relations of science and society. The collection provides an in-depth look at the founding, history, activities and correspondence of the Society for Social Responsibility in Science.

Wagner Free Institute of Science Actuary and Librarian records, 1883-1901 (Wagner Free Institute of Science): Thomas Lynch Montgomery (1862-1929) was Actuary and Librarian at the Wagner Free Institute of Science from 1886 to 1903. He left the Institute to serve as the state librarian of Pennsylvania, a post he held for 18 years. In 1921 he became librarian at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, where he remained until his death. This collection consists of administrative records, financial documents, and correspondence of Thomas Lynch Montgomery, in his position as Actuary and Librarian of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. Many of these records deal with rental properties owned by the Institute, renovations to the Institute itself, exchanges of specimens and publication of the Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. There is a significant amount of correspondence from Joseph Willcox, William H. Dall, Henry Leffmann and Joseph Leidy.
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Lecture on Relativity

Lecture on Relativity

Wagner Free Institute of Science Closing Exercises announcements and programs, 1921-1989 (Wagner Free Institute of Science):  Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. This collection consists of Closing Exercises of the Lecture Season announcements from 1936 to 1983 (intermittent) and programs from 1921 to 1989 (intermittent). The announcements provide information on the following: the date, time and location of the closing exercises, the person giving the introductory remarks and awarding the certificates, the person giving the lecture, and the title of the lecture. This collection provides a record of the lectures presented at the Closing Exercises of the Lecture Season, but no lectures or details of the event are contained within the collection. This collection is an excellent resource for researchers interested in students receiving awards and the subjects these students pursued. A researcher interested in the evolution of “modern” topics in science from 1921 until 1989 may find this collection useful.
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Director's Files

Director's Files

Wagner Free Institute of Science Director’s files, 1883-1948 (Wagner Free Institute of Science):Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. This collection contains records of the operations of the Wagner Free Institute of Science from 1883 to 1948, including the Institute’s financial records; rental property records; and museum, library and instruction program records. The bulk of the collection is financial material and correspondence.
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Wagner Free Institute of Science Director’s files and business records, 1858-1938, bulk 1885-1924 (Wagner Free Institute of Science):  Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. This collection of records details the administrative, financial, and program aspects of the Institute from 1858 to 1938, with the bulk of the records dating from 1885 to 1924.
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Talks to Children

Talks to Children

Wagner Free Institute of Science Superintendent’s and Director’s reports, 1903-1988 (Wagner Free Institute of Science):  Incorporated by William Wagner (1796-1885) in 1855, the Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum and educational institution in Philadelphia that is dedicated to providing free public education in the sciences. This collection consists of the superintendent’s and director’s reports from 1903 to 1988. This full-run of reports focuses mainly on financial matters such as renovation needs, real estate and property holdings, the estate of William Wagner, and the financial health of the institution. The reports also pay tribute to members of the staff and community who have recently died, announce or discuss programs and events at the Institute, and describe the professional activities of the directors.
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Weiss family of Weissport, Pennsylvania papers, 1777-1916 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): The Weiss family was prominent in the coal business in eastern Pennsylvania during the late 1700s and 1800s. The Weiss family collection dates from 1777 to 1916 and documents, most fully, Jacob Weiss (1750-1839), Francis White (1773-1845), and Francis White (1819-1888). The papers include diaries, geological and surveying notebooks, maps and observations; personalia and biographical notes; transcribed documents, portraits, scrapbooks, business journals, daybooks, mercantile records and account books as well as correspondence of many members of the family.
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William Wagner lectures, 1815-1905 (Wagner Free Institute of Science): William Wagner was a gentleman scientist and avid collector of natural history specimens. He founded the Wagner Free Institute of Science in 1855. This collection contains a series of scientific and general lectures written and delivered by William Wagner. The lectures are arranged by subject and center chiefly on conchology, geology and paleontology, and mineralogy and metallurgy; but also include lectures, for example, on education, agriculture and aesthetics.
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Zaccheus Collins correspondence, 1805-1827 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia): Zaccheus Collins (1764-1831) was a plant collector and herbarium owner from Philadelphia. Collins was an esteemed botanist and was often consulted by a majority of botanical writers, though he never published anything himself. He was also an avid collector and his herbarium contained a nearly complete collection of the plants from the vicinity of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. His correspondents also sent him various specimens from their research in the southern states, particularly South Carolina and Georgia. The collection contains letters that are entirely botanical in nature, coming from 55 individuals, and presents a cross section of the botanists and their problems in the early 19th century. There is significant correspondence from Henry Muhlenberg (1753-1815), Frederick Augustus Hall Muhlenberg, Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) and Dr. Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879), as well as many other important botanists of the era.
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