Military History

Revolutionary War

Defense of the Raleigh

Defense of the Raleigh

Barry-Hayes papers, 1723-1875, bulk: 1778-1861 (Independence Seaport Museum):  John Barry (1745-1803), often credited as the Father of the American Navy, served the Continental Navy and the United States Navy for seventeen years. He and his descendants, particularly his nephew Patrick Hayes and grand-nephew Patrick Barry Hayes, became prominent members of Philadelphia society, serving as seamen, merchants, businessmen and politicians. The Barry-Hayes papers are the business, political and personal papers of John Barry and of his family, especially Patrick Hayes and Patrick Barry Hayes. The collection includes correspondence, letterbooks, diaries, logbooks, legal and financial papers related to Barry’s career in the Navy, the business ventures of the Hayes, Keen and Somers families, and their personal lives.
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Colonel Richard Thomas papers, 1741-1919 (Chester County Historical Society): Richard Thomas (1744-1832) was a Revolutionary War colonel and a politician. He served in the Revolutionary War in the 5th Battalion Association despite his Quaker faith and served as an Assembly man from 1796 to 1790, as Pennsylvania Senator from 1790 to 1794, and as Congressman from 1794 to 1798. The collection dates from 1741 to 1919 with the bulk of materials dating from 1741 to 1857. The materials in the collection document the history of Chester County and the United States as well as the personal side of the Thomas family.
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A Weekly Return

A Weekly Return

John Dickinson papers, 1676-1885 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  John Dickinson (1782-1808), a Philadelphia lawyer and politician, was a major figure in colonial Delaware and Pennsylvania governments and during the early national period. He was an active presence and prolific writer during the American Revolution and early Republic from the passage of the Sugar Act (1764) until the Jefferson presidency. He also served in the military as colonel, private, and brigadier general. He married Mary Norris in 1770. John Dickinson died in Delaware in 1808. The John Dickinson papers contains incoming and outgoing correspondence; revolutionary and early national government documents; Revolutionary War documents; Delaware and Pennsylvania government papers; land papers; legal papers; bills and receipts; collected essays, notes and commonplace books; and estate material. The papers provide a clear picture of the way in which colonists envisioned their new country and how these new Americans worked, compromised and adapted in order to achieve their visions. Mary Norris Dickinson is documented through two volumes: one of letters and one of poems.
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Letter from Annapolis

Letter from Annapolis

Rush family papers, 1748-1876 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  The Rush Family papers includes material from Benjamin Rush, physician, social activist, educator, writer and patriot; his brother Jacob Rush, lawyer, Supreme Court judge, and patriot; and Benjamin’s son James Rush, physician and Treasurer of the United States Mint. These American men were “strong characters, zealous patriots during the stirring period in which they lived, tenacious of their convictions and of the high standard of individual duty which they set for others, and typified in themselves,” (Richards, page 53). The bulk of the collection is the papers of Dr. Benjamin Rush and his son Dr. James Rush. Judge Jacob, John, Richard and William are represented, but to a much lesser degree. The other Rush family members are represented in a very limited manner. The collection contains correspondence; financial records; medical notes, lectures, and case histories; writings regarding medicine, politics, and the judicial system; and observations on colonial Philadelphia, the formation of the United States, and the new nation.
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Taylor, Harris, Roman, Frazer, and Smith families papers, 1683-1980 (Chester County Historical Society):  The families in the Taylor, Harris, Roman, Frazer, and Smith family papers, 1633 to 1980 (bulk 1685 to 1851) are all related by the marriage of Marianne Smith to Dr. Stephen Harris on April 14, 1833. Both sides of the lineage represented in this collection immigrated to Pennsylvania because of religious persecution in England and Ireland. As Presbyterians and Quakers, they no longer wished to live under a series of laws which forced non-Anglicans out of public office, schools and the church as well as prohibiting meetings for non-Anglican worship. These newcomers contributed to the establishment of the government and religious expression in early Chester County. The documents, covering topics such as land surveying, Native Americans, the Revolutionary War, astronomy, publishing, the iron industry, and religious persecution, provide a broad picture of early Chester County and its residents as they interacted with each other at home and in Philadelphia through business, religious, and social transactions.
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Correspondence, circa 1775

Correspondence, circa 1775

Thomas Leiper and family business records, 1771-1947 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  Thomas Leiper (1745-1825) was introduced into the business of tobacco shortly after his arrival in Virginia in 1763. Within several years, he moved to Philadelphia where he opened a tobacco shop. During the Revolutionary War, Leiper became the principal tobacco provider in Philadelphia. In 1776, Leiper purchased land in Delaware County that included a mill at a waterfall on the Crum Creek. He established snuff mills and later purchased a stone quarry. The Thomas Leiper and family business records include correspondence, country estate records, and business and financial records of the family’s paper, lumber and wood working businesses, quarry business, and tobacco business dating from 1771 to 1947.
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Weiss family of Weissport, Pennsylvania papers, 1777-1916 (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia):  The Weiss family was prominent in the coal business in eastern Pennsylvania during the late 1700s and 1800s. The Weiss family collection dates from 1777 to 1916 and documents, most fully, Jacob Weiss (1750-1839), Francis White (1773-1845), and Francis White (1819-1888). The papers include diaries, geological and surveying notebooks, maps and observations; personalia and biographical notes; transcribed documents, portraits, scrapbooks, business journals, daybooks, mercantile records and account books as well as correspondence of many members of the family.
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Mexican War

Dimensions of the Hull of the U.S. Ship John Adams

Dimensions of the Hull of the U.S. Ship John Adams

Conner family papers, 1816-1903, bulk: 1832-1856 (Independence Seaport Museum): Susan Dillwyn Physick was born on June 22, 1803, in Philadelphia, the second of four children. Her parents were Elizabeth Emlen, whose family was one of the wealthiest in Philadelphia, and Philip Syng Physick, the prominent physician. In 1824 she met naval Master-Commandant David Conner, and the two married on June 25, 1828. The Conner family papers consist primarily of 23 journals kept by Susan Dillwyn Physick Conner from 1832 to 1856. The collection also includes her unfinished autobiography with amendments by her son, a scrapbook, two notebooks, two journals by her son, one journal by Philip Conner’s wife, two letters (one by Mary Lewis, one by Philip Conner), three account books, two published books owned by Susan Physick Conner, and notes and drafts by Arthur Hale, Philip Conner’s son-in-law.
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Civil War

Letters from the front

Letter from Headquarters

Read family papers, 1736-1896 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  The Read family consistently played an important role in American government and politics from the time that George Read, a Delaware resident, signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Throughout the 17th to 19th centuries, the Reads served as lawyers, judges, politicians, generals, consul-generals and foreign ministers. This collection contains the papers of four generations of the Read family of Philadelphia, consisting of John Read, Judge John Meredith Read, General John Meredith Read, and Harmon Pumpelly Read. The materials date from 1736 to 1896, with the bulk dating from 1792 to 1896, and include extensive correspondence, bills and receipts, genealogical notes, legal documents, newspaper clippings, photographs, scrapbooks and ephemera. The majority of the collection consists of General John Meredith Read’s papers relating to his family history and genealogy, correspondence, and political materials. The collection is particularly valuable in illustrating Philadelphia social life, global and local politics, as well as Civil War experiences, as it includes extensive correspondence describing first-hand accounts as well as with several key political figures during the Civil War era.
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Contingencies of Fortification

Contingencies of Fortification

Samuel George Morton papers, 1832-1862 (Library Company of Philadelphia):  Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) of Philadelphia was a physician and natural scientist whose work focused on the craniometric studies of humans with conclusions regarding the relative intellectual capacities of the “five races.” His work had a profound influence on the development of physical anthropology in antebellum America. He also made contributions in the fields of geology, mineralogy, paleontology and natural history. This collection contains mainly the papers of Samuel George Morton. The papers date from 1832 to 1851, when Morton devoted his research efforts almost exclusively to ethnology and to the collecting of human skulls for comparative studies. The bulk of the papers consist of incoming correspondence, from 1832 to 1851, relating to ethnology and other related interests such as anthropology, craniology, paleontology and Egyptology.
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Military passes

Military passes

Sarah Cooper Tatum Hilles family papers 1791-1930, bulk 1840-1882 (Haverford College):  The Sarah Cooper Tatum Hilles family papers house the correspondence of a Quaker family who lived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Woodbury, New Jersey; Wilmington, Delaware; and other surrounding areas from approximately 1840 to 1882. A majority of the letters were written to or by Sarah Cooper Tatum Hilles; her husband, John Smith Hilles; and other Tatum or Hilles family members. There is a small sampling of assorted family papers, dating from 1825 to 1901. Included, among other items, are school report cards of William Samuel Hilles from Haverford College and an 1834 memoir of Anne Cooper Tatum, Sarah Hilles’ mother. In addition, there are deeds to properties owned by the Hilles family in Delaware, New Jersey, Illinois and Pennsylvania from 1791 to 1886.
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World War I

Scrapbook from Collection

Scrapbook from Collection

Alma A. Clark papers, 1914-1946 (Bryn Mawr College):  Alma A. Clarke was an American who volunteered in World War I helping French orphans through the Committee France-America for the Protection of the Children of the Frontier and as a Red Cross Auxiliary Nurse in the American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 1 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. The Alma A. Clarke papers provide an in depth view into a World War I nurse’s memories and views on her service in France. For the most complete view of Clarke’s experiences in France, a researcher should first examine the “Scrapbooks.” Researchers interested in World War I, the American Red Cross, nursing in World War I, hospitals in World War I and children as victims of war will find this to be an extremely valuable resource. Not only does this collection reveal Clarke’s memories of the War through her collected material, photographs, and documents, it also reveals the way in which both the United States and France promoted their cause through patriotic materials as well as how the countryside and citizens of France were affected by World War I. This collection provides perspective on the War from the viewpoints of children orphaned by the war, nurses exposed to the long term effects of battle, and the soldiers who did not survive the war without physical wounds.
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American Women's Hospital Service in Action

American Women's Hospital Service in Action

American Women’s Hospital Service photographs, 1917-1982 (Drexel University College of Medicine):  The American Women’s Hospitals (AWH) developed from the War Service Committee of the Medical Women’s National Association (later called the American Medical Women’s Association) in 1917, to provide, register and finance American women physicians for war work; to offer medical and emergency relief to refugees; and, later, to provide international public health service. In 1959, AWH became an independent agency and remained such until 1982 when it re-merged with the American Medical Women’s Association. The collection houses photographs created by the American Women’s Hospitals Service (AWHS) from 1917 to 1982 to document and promote the organization’s efforts to provide health care to under-serviced populations in the United States and abroad. The photographs were frequently used in fundraising and publicity campaigns. As a result, many are annotated to identify the primary subject, geographic location and, occasionally, individuals, providing a graphic chronicle of the variety and forms of AWHS fieldwork worldwide. Researchers will find images of field and clinic work conducted in Africa, Albania, Bolivia, France, Greece, India, Korea, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Vietnam and Yugoslavia, to name a few. In addition, there are a few files at the end containing portraits of AWHS personnel and significant women in medicine that were also associated with the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. In addition to the photographic record, this collection also includes a few files of Dr. Esther Lovejoy correspondence and written material used by Dr. Alma Dea Morani to prepare for a lecture in 1974.
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Group of Soldiers

Group of Soldiers

Edward Krumbhaar papers, 1886-1992 (College of Physicians):  Edward Bell Krumbhaar (1882-1966) was a distinguished pathologist and cardiac physician, as well as one of Philadelphia’s leading historians of medicine. A founder of both the Section on Medical History of the College of Physicians and the American Association of the History of Medicine (AAHM), Krumbhaar also served as president of the College and of the AAHM. The E.B. Krumbhaar papers cover Krumbhaar’s accomplishments and contributions to pathology and cardiac physiology from the early to mid-twentieth century. This collection contains Krumbhaar’s research files, administrative records related to organizations and institutions in which he was involved, correspondence, and medical writings. Particular strengths include documentation of Krumbhaar’s research on pathology, the founding of the American Association for the History of Medicine in 1930 and 1931, his service as President of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia from 1939 to 1942, his professorship of Pathology at the University of Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1942, and his translation of Arturo Castiglioni’s History of Medicine in 1941.
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Scrapbook of Service

Scrapbook of Service

Marvin Rosefield Keck papers, 1916-1972, Bulk: 1916-1920 (Independence Seaport Museum):  Marvin Rosefield Keck, (1895-1971) was a musician who served in World War I in Admiral Niblack’s Flagship Band of the Mediterranean Fleet on the Flagship Olympia. The Marvin Rosefield Keck papers, which date from 1916 to 1972, consists of newspaper clippings, correspondence, diaries, drawings, photographs, scrapbooks, and unpublished writings. The collection covers Keck’s experience in World War I as a band member in the United States Navy aboard the U.S.S. Olympia and his experience in the American Legion band in South Dakota after World War I.
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Newspaper Clippping on Anna V. S. Mitchell

Newspaper Clippping on Anna V. S. Mitchell

Olivia Stokes Hatch papers, 1859-1993 (Bryn Mawr College):  The Olivia Stokes Hatch papers reveal the relief work of women during the early 20th century, as well as family relationships, largely illustrated through extensive family correspondence. Olivia Stokes Hatch (1908-1983) was born in New Haven, CT and attended Bryn Mawr College from 1925 to 1930. Prior to her marriage she was very active with the American Red Cross and American Conferences of Social Work. In 1939, Olivia Phelps Stokes married John Davis Hatch, Jr. an art collector, consultant, and museum director. They had four children: John Davis Hatch III, Daniel Lindley Hatch, James Stokes Hatch, and Sarah Stokes Hatch. Anna V.S. Mitchell, the sister of Caroline Mitchell Phelps Stokes, and the aunt of Olivia Stokes Hatch, spent most of her life engaged in relief work. Her career began in 1915 in Serbia and ended in 1936 in Constantinople. The Olivia Stokes Hatch papers, 1859 to 1993, is a collection that consists largely of correspondence between the Phelps, Stokes, Mitchell, and Hatch families. The collection also includes photographs, essays, diaries, and other printed material.
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School of Fire for Field Artillery, Fort Sill, Oklahoma

School of Fire for Field Artillery, Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Taylor and Nicholson family papers, 1810-1999, bulk 1869-1944 (Haverford College):  The Taylor and Nicholson family papers contain the records of these two families from the late-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. The two focal points of this collection are William Nicholson Taylor (1882-1945), and his mother, Rebecca Morgan Nicholson Taylor (1857-1944). William graduated from Harvard in 1903 and afterwards spent considerable time abroad studying architecture. He also served as an officer in the United States Military from 1916 to 1917, and worked in diplomacy after the war. Rebecca was a noted writer and poet during this time period. The strength of this collection is the collected materials related to William’s time in the military, as well as his sketchbooks related to architecture and Harvard. Researchers interested in the works of Rebecca Morgan Nicholson Taylor or Quaker women, should also consult Rebecca’s notebook and correspondence. There is extensive correspondence between the various members of these two families from the 1880s to 1940s.
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World War II

Bomb Shelters and Babies

Bomb Shelters and Babies

American Women’s Hospital Service photographs, 1917-1982 (Drexel University College of Medicine):  The American Women’s Hospitals (AWH) developed from the War Service Committee of the Medical Women’s National Association (later called the American Medical Women’s Association) in 1917, to provide, register and finance American women physicians for war work; to offer medical and emergency relief to refugees; and, later, to provide international public health service. In 1959, AWH became an independent agency and remained such until 1982 when it re-merged with the American Medical Women’s Association. The collection houses photographs created by the American Women’s Hospitals Service (AWHS) from 1917 to 1982 to document and promote the organization’s efforts to provide health care to under-serviced populations in the United States and abroad. The photographs were frequently used in fundraising and publicity campaigns. As a result, many are annotated to identify the primary subject, geographic location and, occasionally, individuals, providing a graphic chronicle of the variety and forms of AWHS fieldwork worldwide. Researchers will find images of field and clinic work conducted in Africa, Albania, Bolivia, France, Greece, India, Korea, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Vietnam and Yugoslavia, to name a few. In addition, there are a few files at the end containing portraits of AWHS personnel and significant women in medicine that were also associated with the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. In addition to the photographic record, this collection also includes a few files of Dr. Esther Lovejoy correspondence and written material used by Dr. Alma Dea Morani to prepare for a lecture in 1974.
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Dear Quaker ex-GI

Dear Quaker ex-GI

Harold J. Chance papers, 1938-1964 (Haverford College): Harold J. Chance (1898-1975) worked for peace education through the American Friends Service Committee, the Peace Caravans, the Youth Section of the Emergency Peace Campaign, the Institute of International Relations, and the Friends Peace Service from 1934-1964. Included in the Harold Chance papers are correspondence, journals, writings, mailings, reports, and materials on the Friends Peace Service. Also included are Harold Haines Brinton’s (1884-1973) lectures and course notes on topics such as history and religion, mysticism in various religions, religion and social change, and the philosophy of pacifism. Researchers will find this collection is especially rich in Quaker history, specifically relating to the discussion of the use of the Quaker voice by individual Friends’ groups, in the mid 1950’s.
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EAT NUTRITIONAL FOOD

EAT NUTRITIONAL FOOD

Historical Society of Pennsylvania collection of World War II papers, 1938-1948 (Historical Society of Pennsylvania):  In late 1942, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania solicited materials to form an artificial collection to document the war effort of a number of community and social service agencies in Philadelphia. The bulk of the material donated came from the Office of War Information, the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, and the United Service Organization of Philadelphia. Smaller donations were made by other community organizations and volunteers such as Mrs. Weber, a member of St. Mark’s church who corresponded with servicemen. The collection, which dates from 1938 to 1948, consists of press releases, administrative records, correspondence, financial records, photographs, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, posters, and ephemera.
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